Andy Robinson's side will take on the Wallabies, who finished third at the recent World Cup, at the Ausgrid Stadium, Newcastle, New South Wales on Tuesday, June 5, 2012. It will be the stadium's first Test.
Scotland beat Australia for the first time in 27 years when the sides met in Edinburgh in November 2009.
Scotland head coach Robinson said: "We're really pleased to have this fixture as part of our tour in June which will also encompass Test matches against Fiji and Samoa.
"The last time we played against Australia was a very good game and a special win for Scotland.
"We're very much looking forward to going to Newcastle and playing our part in the inaugural Test match at the stadium there."
Scotland will travel to Australia and the Pacific islands with a 34-strong playing party.
The full itinerary for the remainder of the tour is still to be finalised, with dates to be confirmed for the Tests with Samoa and Fiji, while it is hoped a Super 15 side will provide the opposition on Saturday, June 9.
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