The 25-year-old Harlequins player was arrested by West Yorkshire Police officers following an alleged incident in Leeds in the early hours of Sunday March 4.
Care has already accepted a police caution for being drunk and disorderly on that night after he was arrested for urinating outside the city's landmark Queens Hotel.
He was questioned again earlier this month in connection with the alleged sex assault on the women.
The player has now been bailed pending further inquiries.
His club said he denies the allegation.
A spokesman for Harlequins said: "Danny Care was asked to report to West Yorkshire Police in Leeds to answer further questions about the incident that took place in the city on 3 March.
"On March 15 Danny attended Leeds Police Station voluntarily by appointment to assist the police with their enquiries. He denies the allegations made against him.
"Harlequins are fully aware of all the facts and will continue to support Danny as he addresses this situation."
A West Yorkshire Police spokesman said: "A 25-year-old man, from Surrey, was arrested in connection with a sexual assault on a woman in Leeds in the early hours of Sunday, March 4.
"He has been bailed pending further enquiries."
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