Scrum-half Rory Lawson will continue as skipper on Sunday after extending his 100% record in the 15-6 defeat of Georgia.
Kellock, who captained Scotland to a 2-0 Test series win in Argentina in June 2010, has been omitted from the 22 altogether as Richie Gray and Jim Hamilton were named to start at second row, with the versatile Nathan Hines named among the replacements.
Gray is one of three changes in the pack, with Geoff Cross and John Barclay also recalled, while Chris Paterson is to start at full-back and Ruaridh Jackson at fly-half.
Cross replaces tighthead prop Euan Murray, who is unavailable due to religious reasons as the match falls on a Sunday, Barclay replaces Ross Rennie, Jackson is recalled in place of Dan Parks and Paterson in place of Rory Lamont.
Scotland are seeking a sixth successive win on Sunday - a feat not achieved since the 1989-90 Grand Slam-winning season - and one which would ensure they maintain their record of progressing to the knockout stages at every World Cup tournament.
Robinson said: "I have picked a team to beat Argentina - the selection is simply about this match and we must view it as another match, while affording our opponents the respect they deserve.
"We have met Argentina five times since the last Rugby World Cup so we both know each others' styles and strengths.
"Of course we can draw confidence from our victories in Tucuman and Mar del Plata last year as Argentina will retain happy memories from their win at Murrayfield in 2009.
"I also believe that Argentina - as they have demonstrated already in the last two months - are a better team than we faced on their soil last year."
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