Glasgow Warriors second row Kellock also served as skipper during the 2011 RBS Six Nations and has now been awarded the honour for the tournament in New Zealand.
Scotland's Pool B campaign begins on September 10 against Romania in Invercargill, with further group games against Georgia, Argentina and England.
The squad features few surprises, although Glasgow Warriors number eight Johnnie Beattie, among the most impressive performers in the 2010 Six Nations before a shoulder problem curtailed his progress, has been omitted.
Beattie was the victim of intense competition in the back row, with David Denton and Robert Harley also missing out.
Edinburgh half-back Greig Laidlaw will also not travel after scrum-halves Chris Cusiter and Mike Blair proved their fitness.
However, Chris Paterson, Scotland's most-capped player and record scorer, has been included.
The Edinburgh full-back is set to become the first Scot to appear in four World Cups, having made his debut in the 1999 tournament.
Robinson named a 40-man squad on May 10 and lost hooker Fergus Thomson, full-back Hugo Southwell and wing Nikki Walker to injury.
Walker suffered a medial knee ligament injury in Saturday's 23-12 win over Italy at Murrayfield, leaving Robinson to cut seven players from the squad instead of eight.
Harley did not play a minute of either of Scotland's warm-up matches, while prop Ryan Grant and centre Ben Cairns were also absent for the Ireland and Italy fixtures and also missed out.
Bath full-back Jack Cuthbert also failed to make the final selection.
Scotland's 30-man squad for the IRB Rugby World Cup 2011:Backs - Joe Ansbro (London Irish), Mike Blair (Edinburgh), Chris Cusiter (Glasgow Warriors), Simon Danielli (Ulster), Nick De Luca (Edinburgh), Max Evans (Castres), Ruaridh Jackson (Glasgow Warriors), Rory Lamont (Toulon), Sean Lamont (Scarlets), Rory Lawson (Gloucester), Graeme Morrison (Glasgow Warriors), Dan Parks (Cardiff Blues), Chris Paterson (Edinburgh).Forwards - John Barclay (Glasgow Warriors), Kelly Brown (Saracens), Geoff Cross (Edinburgh), Alasdair Dickinson (Sale Sharks), Ross Ford (Edinburgh), Richie Gray, Dougie Hall (both Glasgow Warriors), Jim Hamilton (Gloucester), Nathan Hines (Clermont Auvergne), Allan Jacobsen (Edinburgh), Alastair Kellock (captain, Glasgow Warriors), Scott Lawson (Gloucester), Moray Low (Glasgow Warriors), Euan Murray (Newcastle Falcons), Ross Rennie (Edinburgh), Alasdair Strokosch (Gloucester), Richie Vernon (Sale Sharks).
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