Godman, whose late drop goal earned Edinburgh a crucial Heineken Cup victory in Paris against Racing Metro at the weekend, will join the squad in St Andrews when they meet up next week.
The 29-year-old has been brought in because Ruaridh Jackson has not yet returned to match action following the leg injury he suffered during Glasgow's RaboDirect PRO12 match at Llanelli earlier this month.
Godman, who won the last of his 23 caps in the Six Nations against England, always retained hope he could return to the international fold after returning from a knee injury that kept him out for a year until September.
He told the Scotland Rugby team's website: "You always think about getting back into it for the club but also about playing for Scotland as well.
"It's just great to be back playing for Edinburgh and to be back involved with Scotland."
Scotland begin their campaign at home to England on February 4 before facing Wales in Cardiff eight days later.
Godman's call up could also be due to the ongoing uncertainty over the eligibility of Steven Shingler.
The 20-year-old London Irish centre or fly-half was earlier this month named as one of six uncapped players in Andy Robinson's provisional 36-man squad, with the head coach believing Shingler to be available for selection due to his Dumfries-born mother.
However, the Scottish Rugby Union are set to make their case to the International Rugby Board's Regulations Committee after being advised that Shingler cannot play for any country other than Wales.
The Welsh Rugby Union contended that Shingler could not play for another nation after playing full-back for Wales Under-20s against their French counterparts last year.
Shingler and Godman could line-up on opposite sides on Sunday at Murrayfield in the Heineken Cup tie between London Irish and Edinburgh.
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